The starting system for a gas-turbine aircraft engine includes a starter, a source of energy, that is, a fuel supply system that is used to feed a fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber, and an ignition system for the fuel-air mixture. The energy source may be installed on board the airplane, or it may be contained in a starting unit on the airfield flight line.
There are electrical, pneumatic, and thermal starting systems. The electrical systems have DC electric starters and are powered either from storage batteries or from turbogenerator sets located on the airfield or on board the airplane. Thermal starting systems use low-power gas-turbine engines that operate on the same fuel as the engines being started, or they may use cartridge turbine starters. The starting systems for automotive, ship, and stationary internal-combustion engines are simpler.
The crankshaft is rotated by means of a crank handle in manual systemsby an electric starter starter-generator powered from a storage battery, by a starting engine, or by compressed air from a storage tank. Encyclopedia browser? Full browser?An automobile is the result of combined work of a number of systems.
Each system, though primarily independent, is influenced by the effect of other systems interacting with it. Before discussing the interaction of various systems, let us first enumerate the various systems that are present in an automobile.
Power plant:. A vehicle which comes under the class- Automobile must produce its own power sufficient enough to initiate and maintain a propulsion.
The power is produced from within the automobile, usually from a compact engine placed either in the front or rear. In most of the cases the engine is an Internal combustion type that converts chemical energy of fuel into mechanical energy.
This conversion is done inside a piston cylinder arrangement where controlled explosion of fuel-air mixture is done which produces a very high pressure inside. This high pressure drives the piston out from the cylinder. The linear displacement of the piston is converted to rotary motion with the help of a reciprocating motion mechanism.
3 Typical Car Starting System Diagram
The output from the engine is available through a shaft. Drive train :. Power is produced by the engine and transferred to the wheels to propel the vehicle. Drive train helps to transfer power produced from the engine to the wheels with the help of intermediate linkages.
The set of linkages in between the engine and the wheels constitute the drive train. It includes the clutch, the gearbox, the universal joints and the drive shaft and the differential arrangement. The function of the clutch is to provide gradually increasing amount of power to the shaft, while the engine output remains fixed.
Let us understand it this way. Vehicle requires more power when it just starts to roll it needs to overcome inertia. But at this point of time the speed is very low. As the engine is connected to the wheels rigidly through gears, the engine also moves slowly. A slow revolving engine produces little power which is not sufficient to accelerate. Engine can produce more power if it runs at high RPMs. In order to couple an engine running at high speed and a gear system running at low speed, we introduce a clutch which connects the engine and the gear non-rigidly.
Usually the clutch has two stacked plates which slide against each other if pressed. The amount of slip depends on the amount of pressure applied. If slip is more, then the power transmitted is less. The gearbox helps to multiply or divide the available torque at several fixed ratios.
This is essential because the vehicle needs more torque while accelerating and less during constant speed cruising. When the vehicle begins to roll from rest, highest amount of torque is required which can be obtained with the help of a set of reduction gear.
Steering system:. To control a moving vehicle we need a steering system. It manipulates the direction of wheel rolling so as to drive the vehicle in that direction. Generally in most vehicles the front wheels or the front axle are steered and the rear wheels follow it.Dan Ferrell writes about do-it-yourself car maintenance and repair. He has certifications in automation and control technology.
Car starter problems arise unexpectedly and for more than one reason. Whenever there's corroded terminals, loose connections, a bad, worn out or damaged system component, you'll notice.
Starting your car becomes more difficult or it simply refuses to start. Unfortunately, you won't see the source of the problem when all of a sudden the system fails.
And repeatedly turning the ignition key, hoping that eventually the engine will fire up when it refuses to start, doesn't always help. Most often, it creates more problems. Fortunately, common starter system problems happen in predictable places.Starting System & Wiring Diagram
And you have at your disposal more than one strategy to help you check the system in your car. Whether it is lack of power, a bad electrical connection, or a bad starter component, use these five troubleshooting tips to fire up your engine again. You need to know whether you have enough juice to operate the starter motor by measuring the amount of voltage in your battery using a voltmeter. With a reading of The hydrometer is a simple tool that lets you know the state of charge and health of your battery.
So you'll know whether one or more cells have failed. Buy an inexpensive hydrometer online or at most auto parts stores. Then check this article on troubleshooting a car battery using a hydrometer.
Corrosion around battery terminals prevents electrical flow. This is a common problem on a battery or starter system that hasn't received much attention. If you notice a layer of corrosion around one or both battery terminals, clean them with a solution of baking soda and warm water. Check the connections at the starter solenoid the small cylinder on top of the starter or starter relay.The specific circuit needs to be respectively learned referring to different typical control circuits.
The main function of car starting circuit is using the small current from the car battery to control the large current of the car starting circuit, thus to start the starter motor and power the engine. There are three main components in the switch starting circuit: ignition switchstarter solenoidstarter relay.
Usually, the ignition switch connects with a key or a button, and inside of it has the regular wire connects to the car battery.
When the ignition switch is turned or pressed the button to start position, there will be a small current flow through the starter solenoid coil, allow sufficient current flow to the starter. Expect to take part in starting control circuit, the ignition switch also has other functions, such as lock the steering wheel, connected to car electrical system, and connected to the vehicle computer fault diagnosis.
The starter solenoid is the main part of the control starter circuit, including the with relay type and non-relay type.
The solenoid switch is composed of a solenoid, which is an electromagnetic device that produces the attraction or retention of the moving core. Most of the starter solenoid is fixed directly to the top of the starter.
The starter relay is another switch that is used to control the starting circuit. In the start control circuit, the relay is connected in series with the battery to shorten the transmission of the large current cable length. In mini cars equipped with small power starter, the ignition switch start position is used to control the starter solenoid switch directly, as shown in the picture below.
When large power starter is equipped, in order to reduce intensity of the current that passes through the ignition switch and avoid ablation of the switch, the start relay is often used to control the heavy current of the starter solenoid switch, and the ignition switch Start position is used to control the low current of the relay coil.
The single relay controlled starter solenoid wiring diagram is as shown in the following picture. The automatic transmission equips with neutral starting switch, which is in series connection to the bonding terminal of the start relay coil. Neutral starting switch is on only in the case that the automatic transmission gear lever is in parking position P and neutral position N. In other gears, the switch is in an off state, so as to avoid damages to machine parts caused by misoperation.
To ensure that the starter can stall automatically and the starter circuit not connected after the engine starts, some cars adopt the compound relay circuit with safety driving protection. Before the engine starts, the alternator does not generate electricity, the voltage of the neutral tap N binding post is zero, no current passes through the charge light relay, Starter relay coil and charging indicator relay contacts are connected to ground.
After the engine starts, the neutral tap N terminal post of the car alternator outputs proper voltage, which acts on the charge light relay coil and cut-off the current of the starter relay. At this point, even if the ignition switch key not loosened timely, or the key is incorrectly rotated to the ST position again, the starter will not operate. Ignition Switch Usually, the ignition switch connects with a key or a button, and inside of it has the regular wire connects to the car battery.To browse Academia.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Jeni Jacome. Yet, in almost all vehicles, there is a similar, basic electrical system to store electricity, draw on that stored electricity, and generate new electricity.
When you have successfully completed this unit, you will understand how lead- acid batteries operate and how the charging and starting systems work in almost all combustion engine vehicles. Overview There is a similar basic electrical system in almost all vehicles that run by combustion engines. That basic electrical system involves a source for storing and dispensing electrical power, a method of generating new electrical power, and a way to use the stored electrical power to start the combustion engine.
In this unit, you will learn how a battery stores and dispenses electrical power. Figure 8. And finally, you will be introduced to remote start and stop functions associated with many mobile vehicles. Battery Systems Battery Basics In mobile equipment, the battery system provides the electrical power to start engines, turn on lights, run electrical accessories and control devices. A battery stores electrical energy in the form of chemical energy Figure 8.
Storing energy in a battery is called charging the battery. Drawing energy out of a battery is called discharging the battery. When a battery is being charged, electrical energy is turned into chemical energy. When a battery is being discharged, chemical energy is turned into electrical energy. Some equipment uses more than one lead-acid battery and connects them in series or series-parallel arrangements.
Most lead-acid batteries are twelve-volt batteries. Inside the polypropylene housing of a twelve-volt battery are six cells, each responsible for producing just over two volts of electrical energy.
The cells are physically separated by partitions but connected electrically in series by metal connectors. Each cell is made up of lead plates separated by an electrolyte solution. Some of the plates are called the anode plates and have a positive charge. The other plates are called the cathode plates and have a negative charge.
Each plate is made of lead, hardened with antimony or calcium. The plates are coated with chemically-active material. The positive plate is coated, or pasted, with lead peroxide, sometimes also called lead dioxide. The negative plate is coated with a porous type of lead called sponge lead.
It has only lead atoms. Separators keep the plates apart to prevent short circuiting. An electrolyte is a fluid that conducts electricity.
An electrolyte has ions of electrons that can be rearranged when electricity passes through the fluid. The electrolyte in a lead-acid battery is sulfuric acid diluted with water.
In a lead-acid battery, it is this electrolyte that enables the chemical reaction. When a load is placed on a battery, a chemical reaction occurs. The electrolyte releases its sulfate molecules to both of the lead plates, and reacts with the positive plate to take the oxygen molecules.To browse Academia.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. O Folorunso1, L. Akinyemi2,3 A. Ajasa3 and Oladipupo Kazeem3 1. The aim of this paper is to design and develop a Keywords: Fingerprint, Ignition system, finger print based car ignition system with a view Microcontroller, Interface, Vehicles. Recently, car hijack has been on the increase 1. Introduction as armed robbers focus on stealing cars especially The issue of car hijacking or snatching on the brand new ones.
This is achieved with the use of important Omidiora et al. It relies on specific data about unique mathematical formalism and its operations are biological trait in order to work effectively. This discussed. While section 4 deals with Results and system involves running data through algorithms Discussion of Results, section 5 concludes the for a particular result, usually related to a positive paper.
Literature Review Adeoye, The history of fingerprint started in China. This used with thumb prints being imprinted in clay. In technique is said to be the oldest of all biometric the 14th century, various Persian government papers techniques as it is recorded to be used by the had impression of fingers. Observation had it that Assyrian, the Babylonians, the Chinese and Japan no two fingerprints were exactly alike. So, the use of fingerprint as a personal InHenry Faulds proposed an article where code has a long tradition Graevenitz, He gave two examples compared to other biometric systems, is user- which are; a sooty finger marks on a white wall friendly, has high reliability and can be used in a exonerated an accused individual and a greasy print variety of environments.
The template size as a major challenge facing this system, there is a of the biometric information based on minutiae is need to find a solution to this problem. This now much smaller and the processing speed is higher motivates the efforts geared towards designing a than that of graph-based fingerprint matching. So much work as been done using theft and unauthorized use.
The rest of the paper is the fingerprint for one kind of security system or organized as follows: in Section 2, it gives the the other, among whom are the works of Kumar, literature review as regards car theft and biometric Mudholkar, Pandit, Kawale, to mention but a few technology. TheKawale, The microcontroller reads used, all ignition systems use battery, switch, coil, the state of the input buttons which could be either switching device and spark plug Delmar The signal microcontroller gets from the However, in this modern technology dispensation, input button tells what to work on at that time.
This biometrics has been employed for the ignition and project is aimed to replace the push-button in security process Omidiora et al. Design 3. The design incorporates both Circuit hardware and software. The LCD circuit was built using it datasheet. Vdd and Vss 12vdc were connected as instructed by the datasheet. Figure 1: Block diagram of fingerprint based car starting system.
A volt So resistor for voltage 4. For protection, a zener Therefore from resistor catalogue, diode rated 5 volts is connected to protect the resistor value 2.
How the starting system works
This chip has 40 pins voltage from the PIC chip is 4.There's a detailed 26 minute video called The Starter in the video course. To make an engine start it must be turned at some speed, so that it sucks fuel and air into the cylindersand compresses it. The powerful electric starter motor does the turning. Its shaft carries a small pinion gear wheel which engages with a large gear ring around the rim of the engine flywheel. In a front-engine layout, the starter is mounted low down near the back of the engine.
The starter needs a heavy electric currentwhich it draws through thick wires from the battery. No ordinary hand-operated switch could switch it on: it needs a large switch to handle the high current.
The switch has to be turned on and off very quickly to avoid dangerous, damaging sparking. So a solenoid is used - an arrangement where a small switch turns on an electromagnet to complete the circuit.
The starter switch is usually worked by the ignition key. Turn the key beyond the 'ignition on' position to feed current to the solenoid. The ignition switch has a return springso that as soon as you release the key it springs back and turns the starter switch off. The movement of the rod closes two heavy contacts, completing the circuit from the battery to the starter. The rod also has a return spring -when the ignition switch stops feeding current to the solenoid, the contacts open and the starter motor stops.
The return springs are needed because the starter motor must not turn more than it has to in order to start the engine. The reason is partly that the starter uses a lot of electricity, which quickly runs down the battery. Also, if the engine starts and the starter motor stays engaged, the engine will spin the starter so fast that it may be badly damaged.
The starter motor itself has a device, called a Bendix gear, which engages its pinion with the gear ring on the flywheel only while the starter is turning the engine. It disengages as soon as the engine picks up speed, and there are two ways by which it does so - the inertia system and the pre-engaged system. The inertia starter relies on the inertia of the pinion - that is, its reluctance to begin to turn. The pinion is not fixed rigidly to the motor shaft - it is threaded on to it, like a freely turning nut on a very coarse-thread bolt.
Imagine that you suddenly spin the bolt: the inertia of the nut keeps it from turning at once, so it shifts along the thread of the bolt. When an inertia starter spins, the pinion moves along the thread of the motor shaft and engages with the flywheel gear ring. It then reaches a stop at the end of the thread, begins to turn with the shaft and so turns the engine. Once the engine starts, it spins the pinion faster than its own starter-motor shaft.
The spinning action screws the pinion back down its thread and out of engagement. The pinion returns so violently that there has to be a strong spring on the shaft to cushion its impact. The violent engagement and disengagement of an inertia starter can cause heavy wear on the gear teeth.
To overcome that problem the pre-engaged starter was introduced, which has a solenoid mounted on the motor. There's more to a car starter system: As well as switching on the motor, the solenoid also slides the pinion along the shaft to engage it. The shaft has straight splines rather than a Bendix thread, so that the pinion always turns with it. The pinion is brought into contact with the toothed ring on the flywheel by a sliding fork.
The fork is moved by a solenoid, which has two sets of contacts that close one after the other.
The first contact supplies a low current to the motor so that it turns slowly - just far enough to let the pinion teeth engage. Then the second contacts close, feeding the motor a high current to turn the engine. Pre-engaged starter. When the switch feeds current to the solenoid, the electromagnet attracts an iron rod.